Bell Cow Mine

It is said that Gregor Schneider never worked off his ranch at Platina except to build the flume to the Bell Cow Mine. This flume later evolved into a narrow dirt road known as "The Ditch Grade". - Shasta Historial Society

The original Bell Cow Mine went through name changes, expansions, owner changes and so on from 1910 to 1928-29. Persons involved seem to be: S. H. Fiske, J. P. Erhart, J.H. Purcell, Frank A. Greene, John Mason, C.W. Leininger, J. Asby Simpson and Jesse Carter.  - Mines of Shasta County 1891-1941


Harrison Gulch Mining District

1893 - Gold discovered along the creek running through a gulch that later became known as the Harrison Gulch Creek and Harrison Gulch named for William H. Harrison who had been elected the first judge of Shasta County in September 1850.~

1893 - discovery of the gold by Leonard Benton, John Isaac Fowler and a man named Rhodes.

date a ? - The three sold to the Hurst Brothers who gave the mine the name of King Midas shortened to Midas Mine for the gold being so rich in quantity and quality.~

Ferdinand Hurst, later Shasta county Supervisor and owner of the Golden Eagle Hotel.

1898 - Captain J.W. Roberts' Gold Hill Developing Company purchased the Midas Mine.~

1899 May 20, Evening News; Redding, May 20:  The Midas Gold Mining Company, operating at Harrison Gulch, the largest gold mining camp in Shasta County, has suffered a loss of $75,000 by washing away of the restraining dam for the impounding of the tailings from its quartz mill.~

1901 March 17, Special Dispatch to the Sunday Herald, New York, March 16, 1901-The Midas, in Harrison Gulch, Shasta County, Cal., has a pay chute 2700 feet long off the fourth level. It is pay ore all the way and averages from two to three feet wide. It is claimed to be the longest pay chute in California.~

1901 March- Capt. J. H. Roberts of the Midas Mine, Harrison Gulch, came into town (Redding) carrying a heavy grip which he refused to check. It enclosed a solid gold brick weighing 50 pounds, and worth $13,000. The Midas Mine averaged about $30,000 per month. - Giles~

Captain Roberts shipped the gold bricks from the Midas Mine from Red Bluff to San Francisco in his own boat. Roberts also had interests in other mines in the area. It is also said he always had a few "fake" gold bricks along with each shipment in case of robbery.~

1903 January 9, The Semi-Weekly Searchlight - Redding, Shasta County, California -

Sherk, with ownership just established now taking out nuggets - E.P. Sherk, the man who experienced all the trouble in court over his Harrison Gulch mining property, has struck it rich on that selfsame property, according to the reports that have reached Redding from the scene of the strike.

After the law had declared Sherk to be the owner of the property and he was no longer compelled to occupy his time in fighting law suits, he set to work to develop his mine.

As the story has reached Redding, Sherk dug away the face or breast of his tunnel. Near bedrock he encountered gravel. He washed this and was both surprised and delighted to pan out great pieces of coarse gold. The chunks range in value from three dollars up to twelve. One piece weighed $14.20.

As Sherk continues to work he continues to clean up pieces of gold from the bedrock.

A miner in Redding from Harrison Gulch says Sherk's property is easily worth $20,000. at the present time.~

1904 February 22 - San Jose Mercury - MINE IS CLOSED DOWN - ONE HUNDRED MEN AT HARRISON GULCH THROWN OUT OF WORK - Redding, Feb 21, 1904: The Midas Mine of Harrison Gulch was closed down today as the result of labor troubles. One hundred men are thrown out of employment. The miners Union demanded the discharge of an engineer because he was a non-union man and the mining company decided to shut down rather than accede to the demands of the union.~

1904 December - A second shaft sunk across the gulch from the Midas and named Gold Hill.~

Date a ? - Victor Mine located on the edge of Knob, adjoining the Midas Mine on the east. Feuding developed between the two mining companies as each thought they had the "big vein" and their tunnels were heading toward each other.

Date a ? - Midas Group included Victor and Twinvict; Gold Hill and Harrison Gulch Mines. Harrison Gulch District = Black Bear, Esperanza, Gray Eagle, Harrison Gulch, Independent Group, and Midas Group. Platina District = Beegum Creek and Platina Mine.~

1909 - Monthly cleanup from the Twenty-Stamp Mill at the Midas Mine in Harrison Gulch yielded enough gold to make a $28,000.00 gold brick. L. A. McIntosh, manager of the mine, came in from Harrison Gulch and brought the valuable gold brick with him.~

1911 March 4, Harry L. Waste, manager of the Midas Mine at Harrison Gulch, was married to Mabel Morrissey, a daughter of F.T. Morrissey, the Harrison Gulch merchant.~

1915 - The Harrison Gulch Mining District, 50 miles southwesterly from Redding near the Trinity County line,[extreme southwest Shasta county] is known principally on account of the MIDAS MINE. Here the ore occurs in slate, near a porphyry dike, and considerable evidence of faulting is found. The pay shoot has an average width of 12 inches. The haul is rather expensive, as two mountain ranges must be crossed.~

1915 - BLACK BEAR MINE consists of 80 acres, in Sec 9, T 29 N, R 10 W, 1 miles south of Harrison Gulch, in the Harrison Gulch Mining District.Owners:  W.D. Lilly et al of Redding. One vein 5' wide in slate, only slightly developed. Two short tunnels.~

1915ESPERANZA MINE consists of 160 acres, in Sec 29, T 29 N, R 10 W, about 1 1/2 miles east of Harrison Gulch, in the Harrison Gulch Mining District. Owner:  A. J. Oswald. Four veins exposed on the surface, three being parallel. A shaft has been sunk on the Lucky George claim to a depth of 214 feet, and three crosscuts run, longest 142 feet, working through a fault. A little ore on the surface. A 12 h.p. steam hoist used. Four men employed. Prospect.~



Igo Mining District

1881 January 20, San Francisco Bulletin , via Redding Independent -

If there is one part of Shasta County more prosperous than another, it is the country about Igo. There are a number of nice little farms that are netting their owners a good living and a little beside; but the principal industry is mining. With the aid of the recently invented gravel elevator a new impetus has been given to hydraulic mining, and near Igo are numerous claims of rich gravel which heretofore could not be worked, owing to lack of sufficient fall, but which with the elevator can be made to yield large dividends. The quartz interest is also looking up.

The Chicago Company, O. Engle, Superintendent, after waiting for the rain, are now getting in their heavy work. Two small bars of bullion were shipped not long since, and on Monday Dunham's express conveyed to Anderson for shipment a bar weighing 27 1/2 pounds which was taken out of two tons of rock. Although the ore in the Chicago is somewhat base, it will abundantly pay to work.

R. G. Harvey, Superintendent of the Hardscrabble hydraulic mine, has twelve men employed, and with three giants under way, is doing splendid execution.

Ginsby & Holland of San Francisco have entered into arrangements with Warren Dunham to put up a gravel elevator at his gravel mine near Igo. This mine is situated in a flat and cannot be worked except by the recently patented  gravel elevator.

Jack McConnell & Co. have nearly completed their elevator, and in about three weeks will work their gravel mines opposite Horsetown at the Gleason ranch.~

1893 September 12, Dallas Morning News (Dallas, TX) - from Chicago, Ill - Dissension in the Igo Consolidated Mining Company has led Thomas J. Reid, a stockholder and former vice-president to file a bill in the circut court asking for an accounting and the appointment of a receiver to wind up the affairs of the concern. The company owns mines twenty-five miles northwest of Anderson, Shasta County, California.~

1915 - The Igo Mining District is 13 miles southwest of Redding, and some good placer ground has been worked in this section. The debris law has stopped hydraulic operations. The quartz mining has been carried on to a limited extent. The pay shoots are short but carry good values in gold. Good wagon road from Redding to the town of Igo. The same general conditions apply to Ono, some 7 miles west of Igo.~

1915, ATLANTIC MINE - Consists of 100 acres in Sections 17 and 20, T 31 N, R 6 W, 3 miles northwest of the town of Igo, in the Igo Mining District.

Owner:  W. L. Kingsbury.

Two parallel veins about 150 feet apart have been worked in a small way. Pay shoot 70' long and 15' wide, in granite. One tunnel on vein for a distance of 440 feet. A little ore shipped to Selby smelter gave returns of $80 per ton in gold. Small producer. Two men employed. - Mines and Mineral Resources of Shasta County, Siskiyou County, Trinity County by G. Chester Brown (1915)~

1915, BLACK HAWK MINE - Consists of 80 acres in Sec. 14, T 31 N, R 6 W, about 1 mile northwest of Centerville, in the Igo (formerly South Fork) mining district.

Owner:  W. Dunham [Warren Dunham]

One vein, meta-andesite walls, only small amount of development work by a tunnel 440' long. Little ore taken out.Idle. Prospect. -Mines and Mineral Resources of Shasta County, Siskiyou County, Trinity County by G. Chester Brown (1915)~

1915, Mines and Mineral Resources of Shasta County, Siskiyou County and Trinity County -

CLIMAX MINE - Consists of 60 acres in Sec 16 and 21, T 31 N., R 6 W, about 3 miles northwest of Igo.

Owner:  S.W. Robinson

One vein in granite. Ore shoot short, free near surface but base with depth. Only limited amount of development work by means of short tunnels. Old Justin mill dismantled. Has been a small producer. Worked a few months each year. Prospect.~

1915, CRYSTAL MINE, Mines and Minerals of Shasta County, Siskiyou County and Trinity County - Consists of 60 acres, in Sec. 17, T. 31 N., R 6 W., 3 miles northwest of Igo.

Owners:  Kingsbury and Hubbard.

Three parallel veins in granite. Ore is grayish gold-silver sulphide. Pay shoot short and values are not uniform. Only slightly developed with short tunnels. A little ore shipped to smelter gave returns of $50 per ton in gold and silver. Worked a few months during the year. Prospect.~

1915, DIAMOND MINE -  Formerly known as Black Prince, consists of 80 acres, in Sec 18, T 31 N, R 6 W, 4 miles northwest of Igo, in the Igo Mining District.

Owner:  S. W. Robinson

Four veins on the group, but only one, the Black Prince, has been worked. Granite foot wall and meta-andesite hanging. Pay shoot 100 feet long and 2 feet wide, ore base below the surface. A tunnel 400 feet long, short drifts, and one slope on the vein. Ore shipped to smelter gave returns of $50. per ton in gold and silver. Prospect being worked by Roberts and Wheeler of Igo, under a lease.~

1915, GOLDEN CROWN MINE - Consists of 80 acres, in Sec 19, T 31 N, R 6 W, 2 miles northwest of Igo, in the Igo (South Fork) mining district.

Owners:  Dunham & Gilson

One vein 1 foot wide, syenite footwall and granite-porphyry hanging. Short ore shoot, free milling. Prospect, only slightly developed. Little ore shipped to smelter. Idle.~

1915 - Jewel Quarry is located in Sec 25, T 31 N, R 6 W, 2 1/2 miles east of Igo. Massive deposit. Rock grayish in color and similar to Masterton deposit. It has not been worked for several years.

Note: Masterton Quarry was a massive granite deposit 1 1/2 miles S of Stella.~

1915, LODI MINE - Consists of 60 acres, in Sec 16, T 31 N, R 6 W, about 3 1/4 miles north of Igo.

Owners:  W.D. Bull et al

Elevation 1400 feet. One vein 2 feet wide. Short ore shoot. Ore base below the surface, consisting of gold, silver, zinc and galena. Slightly developed with a short tunnel. Little ore shipped. Idle.~

1915- LOST CHANNEL MINE - (drift) mine, consisting of 580 acres, is located in Secs 3, 4 ,34, T 30 and 31 N, R 6 W, and extends southerly from the town of Igo for a distance of 1 1/2 miles.

Owner:  C.A. Russell of Igo.

The bedrock is soft, decomposed granite, slightly tilted. Course of channel is north and south, and contains some pay to a depth of 20 feet below the surface. Best values found 4 feet above bedrock. Workings consist of several tunnels, longest 1800 feet; also a number of old shafts 50 feet deep, all along Dry Creek. About 5 acres have been worked. Some of the gravel is rich. Gold is 875 fine, and sells for $18 per ounce. Leased by Porter and Thompson of Seattle, Washington, who endeavored to work the ground as "dry land" proposition, using a shovel and then dumping the gravel into a rotary grinder, then running the tailings over a short copper plate. Experiment a failure. Power obtained from Northern California Power Company. Holdings now being drilled to determine dredging possibilities. Six men employed. Property has been a producer since 1865, when the first location (the Blue Bird) was made by T. White. Piety Hill drift mine to the northeast.~


Mining Districts

Ron Joliff and Nola Shoup collaborated to bring us a Mining District List for S W Shasta County. Ron also provided maps for nine of the districts. Going over each map with my nifty magnifying glass, I'll add some of the names I could identify that might fit in with this and other research and projects. In alphabetical order, here we go:

Arbuckle Mining District (no map yet)

Centerville Mining District (map) Midnight Mine, Three R Mine, Yankee John Mine, Little Frog Mine, Tadpole, Mineral Entry, 594, Squawtown, Larkin Rd

Cottonwood Mining District (no map yet)

Eagle Creek Mining District (map) Eagle Creek, Rector Creek, Huling Creek

Harrison Gulch Mining District (map) Harrison Gulch, Knob Peak (couldn't read the very tiny print)

Horsetown Mining District (map) Clear Creek, Horsetown, Briggsville, Cloverdale, Texas Springs, Townsend, Dixon & Coopers, Cletan Farnans Land, (more tiny words)

Huling Mining District  (no map yet)

Igo Mining District (map) South Fork Clear Creek, Clear Creek, Dry Creek, Piety Hill, Placer Mine, Igo Lost, Channel Mines, Cons. Placer, Igo Ridge Placer, 4 (?) Bar, Copper Lode,(other tiny words) 

Middletown Mining District (map) Monte Cristo Cons, Arizona Cons Group, Olney Creek, Clear Creek, Oregon Gulch, Gem Lode, Blackfoot Lode, Clegr, Ditch, Jenny Creek, Canyon (more tiny words)

Muletown Mining District (map) Clear Creek, Elk Horn Placer, Santa Claus, North Star Lode, Mabel-Emma Lode, (more tiny words)

Jim Fisk, Oriface Lode, Stoney Gulch Q.M.C., The Skipper Q.M.C., Midway R.M.C., NRA Lode Mine, Potosi Mine, Jumbo Mine - Thank You, Marilyn Carter

Redding Mining District (no map yet)

Roaring River Mining District  (no map yet)

South Fork Mining District (map) South Fork Clear Creek, May V. Balou, Silver Falls Mine (more tiny words)

Sunny Hill Mining District (map) Bully Choop Mining District, Bully Choop Mountain, Sunny Hill Mine, (more tiny words)

If you have more information, or if I have made errors, please let me know and I can keep building on this Project entry - - or use the comment button at the bottom of this entry. Thanks!



Mining Jargon: Arastra or Arrastra or Arrastre

In gold mining, a crude machine used for ore crushing; some sort of grinder powered by water or animals; a circular rock lined pit in which broken ore is pulverized by stones attached to horizontal poles fastened in a central pillar and dragged around the pit.~

According to R. S. Ballou, there were at one time, 7 arrastras on South Fork of Clear Creek on oxidized surface ores with good returns.

E.L. Ballou had an arrastra as did Dayton Hubbard. Other Arrastra owners were Moody, Wright and the Shirland Brothers.~


Mining Jargon: Cleaning up

According to John S. Hittell in the book Hittell on Gold Mines and Mining:

Cleaning up - The separation of the gold, amalgam, and quicksilver, from the dirt in the bottom of the sluice, is called "cleaning up;" and the period between one "cleaning up" and another is called a "run." A run in a common board-sluice usually lasts from six to ten days. Ordinarily the sluice runs only during daylight, but in some claims the work continues night and day. Cleaning up occupies from half a day to a day, and therefore must not be repeated too often because it consumes too much time. In some sluices the cleaning up does not occur until the riffle-bars have been worn out or much bruised by the wear of the stones and gravel. Cleaning up is considered light and pleasant work as compared with other sluicing, and is often reserved for Sunday.

At the time fixed, the throwing in of dirt ceases, and the water runs until it becomes clear. five or six sets of riffle-bars, a distance of thirty or thirty-five feet, are taken up at the head of the sluice, and the dirt between the bars is washed down, while the gold and amalgam lodge above the first remaining set of riffle-bars, whence it is taken out with a scoop or large spoon, and put into a pan. Five or six more sets of bars are taken up and so on down. Sometimes all the riffle-bars are taken up at once, save one set in every thirty six feet, and then the work of cleaning up is dispatched much more rapidly.

The quicksilver and amalgam taken from the sluice are put into a buckskin or cloth, and pressed, so that the liquid metal passes through, and the amalgam is retained. The amalgam is then heated, to drive off the mercury. This may be done either in an open pan or in a close retort. In the former, the quicksilver is lost; in the latter, it is saved. The pan is generally preferred. Often a shovel or plate of iron is used. Three pounds of amalgam, from which the liquid metal has been carefully pressed out, will yield one pound of gold. The gold remaining after the quicksilver has been driven off by heat from the amalgam, is a porous mass, somewhat resembling sponge-cake in appearance.~


Mining Jargon: Ditch

Ditch - A long narrow trench or furrow dug in the ground, as for conveying water to another location. The miners used ditches to convey water from creeks, rivers, lakes to get it to where they needed it to work out the gold.

1859, Shasta County Mining Ditches:

ARBUCKLE - 6 miles, worth $10,000, belonged to Howe & Co.

BALD HILL - out of Cottonwood Creek, 8 miles, worth $15,000 belonged to Able & Co.

CEDAR FLAT - out of Cottonwood Creek, 2 1/2 miles worth $3,000. belonged to L. Williams & Co.

CLEAR CREEK - out of Clear Creek, 53 miles, worth $140,000, belonged to Rhodes, Smith & Co.

CLEAR CREEK - out of Clear Creek, 3 miles, worth $4,000, belonged to Wilkinson & Co.

CLEAR CREEK - out of Clear Creek, 2 miles, worth $12,000, belonged to McKinney & Elmore

CLEAR CREEK SOUTH FORK - out of Clear Creek So. Fork, 2 miles worth $10,000 belonged to C. M McKinney & Co.

COTTONWOOD - out of Cottonwood Creek, 8 miles, worth $10,000, belonged to Linn & Wheelock

EAGLE CREEK - out of Eagle Creek, 16 miles, worth $10,000, belonged to Linn & Wheelock

KNOW MUCKET - out of Clear Creek, 4 miles, worth $5,000, belonged to Duffy & Stockton

QUARTZ HILL - out of Churn Creek, 8 miles, worth $4,000, belonged to J. Harrison & Co.

SACRAMENTO - out of Sacramento Creek, 22 miles, worth $25,000 belonged to E. Tierney & Co.

WATSON - 7 1/2 miles, worth $18,000, belonged to Watson & Thurston~


Mining Jargon: Dredge

The Dredge is a large raft or barge on which is mounted either a chain of buckets or suction pumps and other appliances to elevate and wash alluvial deposits and gravel for gold, tin, platinum, diamonds, etc.~

1904 January 23, Free Press, Redding, CA- One of the very largest dredging plants in California is that of the California and Detroit Company (known as the Heintz dredger), on Clear Creek at old Horsetown, twelve miles west of Redding. This plant is just being rebuilt, the former dredger having been destroyed by fire last June. Other dredgers, The Martin and Diestelhorst - are operated in the Sacramento River near Redding and have been worked successfully and profitably.

1915 July 9, San Jose Mercury News - ". . .The dredge mining in the state continues to be prosperous and productive. The United States Dredging Co., which has its machine on Middle Creek, three miles from Redding, and some other companies are prospecting ground in the vicinity of Igo, Gas Point and in Happy Valley, in Shasta County."

". . . The Shasta Dredging Company's dredger that has been operating at Horsetown, on Clear Creek, has been moved 12 miles to a new dredging point near Gas Point."~

In 1940, the Carlson & Sandburg Dragline Dredge was working on Roaring River in southwestern Shasta County, dredging for gold.~



Mining Jargon: Hydraulic Mining

Hydraulic mining is a method of mining by which a bank of gold-bearing earth or gravel is washed away by a powerful jet of water and carried into sluices, where the gold separates from the earth by its specific gravity.~

In 1858, a cave-in due to hydraulic mining at Horsetown hill buried two miners and threw a third one out with the debris. The man sprang up, directed the hydraulic hose and nozzle on the spot and in a few minutes had mined out his partners, alive.~

The Hardscrabble Mine at Piety Hill extracted gold by this method.~

1903 - Caminetti Law passed creating a committee whose duty it was to prevent tailings caused by hydraulic mining from going into the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers.~


Mining Jargon: Long Tom

1850 April 15, Sacramento- American ingenuity, plus the universal desire to get more gold faster, is bringing about the introduction of a new "machine" for washing gold in the placer mining areas.

It is the "Long Tom," a box about 10 or 12 feet long and open at the top and ends. Across the bottom are placed bars, called riffles. A stream of water is passed through the box, and dust bearing dirt is shoveled into it. The heavier gold particles sink to the bottom, and are caught by the riffles.

More of the finer bits of gold are lost by the process, but it offers the great advantage over the popular cradle of permitting the speedy washing of larger quantities of earth continuously by a group of miners working together. As a result, it is being popularly adopted in the gold region although the miners pan and the cradle are still the standbys of prospectors and diggers who prefer to work alone.~


Mining Jargon: Stamp Mill

A Stamp Mill is an apparatus (also the building containing the apparatus) in which rock is crushed by descending pestles (stamps), operated by various power sources.~

The Chicago Mine, on the South Fork of Clear Creek, near Igo, was a 5-stamp mill. Zogg had a stamp mill on the South Fork of Clear Creek near Ballou's mining operation.~


Mining Laws for the Horsetown District

1856 February 11 (Adopted)

Article 1 - Each miner shall be entitled to hold one hundred feet square in dry diggings.

Article 2 - Each man shall be entitled to hold during the dry season, a claim in dry diggings, and also, during the wet season, a creek claim of one hundred feet square, without depriving himself of the privilege of holding a workable claim, either in the creek or in dry diggings, as the case may be, providing he, or they, put a notice on the same, fully setting forth the boundaries of said claim, and of his or their intention to work the same, as soon as is practicable.

Article 3 - If any man through neglect leaves his claim for a longer period than ten days, while in a workable condition, and neglects to do any work on the same he shall forfeit his right, and the same may be taken up and worked by another.

Article 4 - All miners taking up claims, shall post up a notice in a conspicuous place, giving the names in full of the claimants.

Article 5 - All claims will hold good by recording from the first day of May until the first day of October, after which time, all notices will have to be renewed every ten days.

Article 6 - Any man purchasing a claim, shall cause the disposer to have  a transfer of said claim to him on the recorders book.

Article 7 - No miner shall be compelled to work his claim, by forcing him to hire water.

Article 8 - There shall be a recorder appointed, whose duty it shall be to record all Notices of Claims that may be presented to him for that purpose.

Article 9 - Any person having claims recorded, shall pay to the recorder the sum of one dollar for each claim he shall have recorded, and said recorder shall be required to give any information that may be required of him, in regard to said notice, when called upon.

Article 10 - That the One Horsetown Mining District be known as included in the following boundaries, to wit, commencing, on clear Creek at the mouth of Dry Creek, and running up said creek to its head. Thence westwardly and down Oregon Gulch, including all its tributaries to Clear Creek, thence down said creek including both banks to the place of beginning.

Article 11 - All disputes about claims shall be settled by a Jury of Miners, chosen by the disputants, the said Jury of Miners, holding claims, and residing in this district. Also the disputants shall abide by the decision of the said Jury in accordance with with the laws herein provided.

Article 12 - All Tail Races, shall hold good so long as the claimants shall wish to use them for mining purposes.

Article 13 - For the protection of those who prospect, it is resolved, that the miner who shall strike new diggings, shall be allowed an extra claim in the place of discovery of one hundred square feet.

I certify the foregoing to be a true Copy.

John C. Spencer, Recorder of Claims

[Found at Behrens-Eaton by Jo Giessner on 20 April 2011]



Mining Notes

1852 June 15, Sacramento Weekly Union - News from Shasta Courier - The quartz vein of the Shasta Hydraulic Co. is proving very rich. Messrs. Wright and Kelly of San Francisco, have purchased one half of the vein (2000 shares) for $10,000.

Mr. Thomas, on Whiskey Creek, recently took from his claim a lump of pure gold weighing $600.

Mad Ox, Mad Mule, and other canons putting into Whiskey Creek, have proven to be exceedingly rich the past year. The diggings are deep, and frequently weeks are spent without discovering the color of gold. The gold is usually found in deep deposits.

Messrs. Clapp and Albert, two miners from Iowa, have taken from Stud-Horse Canon four thousand dollars during the past two weeks.

The miners on Salt Creek at the Lower Springs, are realizing five dollars per day.

Several mining camps on Clear Creek have recently been robbed by the Indians.~

1853, Notes on principal mining districts:  Lower Springs, yielding well; Jackass Flat, mines average splendid wages; Olney Creek, first rate wages in many claims; Sacramento River, plenty of unmined gold; Pit River, very rich mines; One Horsetown, placers unsurpassed; Middletown, good wages but needs water; French Gulch, rich diggings, 3-6 oz. per day. Miners prepare to pull down houses to follow rich leads under them.~

1854 February 1, San Francisco - Many of us know where the gold came from throughout California, but did you ever think about where it went?

According to an article from a San Francisco news release on 1 Feb 1854, 1853 was the biggest year in California's gold history and according to Adams & Co., bankers and forwarders,  shipping out of the Port of San Francisco alone was the following chart. In addition, there was an incalculable amount taken out by individuals.

"By destination, the gold was distributed as follows:  New York, $47,914,447; New Orleans, $390,781; London, $4,795,662; Panama, $793; Valparaiso, $445,778; Sandwich Islands, $194,000; China, $926,124; Manila, $17,430; Calcutta, $1,240; New South Wales, $38,670."~

1856 February 5, San Francisco Bulletin, from Shasta Courier - The Whisky Creek diggings are paying unusually large wages, so also are all the diggings along the line of the Shasta Ditch.~

1856 February 5, San Francisco Bulletin, from Shasta Courier - In some localities, very large lumps are taken out, and this is particularly true in reference to all that region of country from Middletown, through Centreville, Jackass Flat, Horsetown, and along the line of Clear Creek, and around Texas Springs.~

1856 February 5, San Francisco Bulletin, from Shasta Courier -Even near our town, on Flat Creek, miners are doing very well, and in fact the same can be said of every mining locality in our county.~

1863 January 8, San Francisco Bulletin - In Shasta County about Roaring River, Janesville and Union Flat, the miners were said to be very successful earning from $5 up to $17 per day. A number of hydraulic claims were also opened.

The Bunker Hill Co., at the mouth of Middle Creek, 3 miles from Shasta, in April last were reported to have taken out daily for 2 weeks from 6-10 pounds of gold worth $19 per ounce, only four men being employed.~

1864, By John S. Hittell, 1864:

John S. Hittell was a miner on Clear Creek in 1849, and in the group of twelve in February 1850, who ventured out to make peace with the Native Americans and find the richness of Arbuckle Gulch. He was also a writer.

"South of Siskiyou and east of Trinity lies Shasta county, which is on the average forty miles wide from north to south and one hundred miles long, reaching to the eastern border of the state. There is a rich auriferous district about twenty miles square, in the vicinity of the town of Shasta, in the south-western part of the county. The diggings are mostly in the basins of Clear Creek, Cottonwood Creek, Rock Creek, and Salt Creek, all of which enter the Sacramento. There are four quartz-mills in the county, one at French Gulch, one at Middle Creek, one at Muletown and one at Old Diggings. The county has twenty-seven mining ditches with a joint length of one hundred and forty-one miles, an average of five miles each. The chief mining towns are Shasta, Horsetown, French Gulch, Muletown, Briggsville, Whiskey and Middletown."~

1864 May 7, Shasta Courier - Bon Ton - This company, of Clear Creek district, some two weeks ago sent some rock from their claim to Goldsmith & Co., San Francisco, to be tested. Returns were received a few days since which show an assay of 16 per cent of copper. The company have recommended work on their claim, and we are informed that the quality of the ore improves in appearance as they go down their shaft.~

1876 April 15, San Francisco Bulletin - A man named Rochford was drowned in the Sacramento River, between Portuguese Flat and the mouth of Slate Creek, last Sunday whiule prospecting for placer mines. His body at last accounts had not been recovered. He leaves a family in Benicia.~

1880 November 27, San Francisco Bulletin - The Slate Creek Mining Company, Shasta county, are enlarging theiur flumes at the head of their ditch and cutting a bed-rock race to their claim, and making other improvements.~

1881 April 19, San Francisco Bulletin -

Slate Creek - hydraulics have begun.

Copper City - has shipped $6,326. aince April 1st.

Women can hold a mining claim, under the General Land Office Law, and so can a minor. 

French Gulch - excitement over new quartz discoveries. The Washington Company have cleaned up a run of 132 tons that yielded $18. per ton.~

1924 July 30 report:

Quartz Mines in Shasta County that have produced gold in paying quantities. The Victor Mining Company group of mines at Harrison Gulch among which is the Midas mines. Small force at work. The Bell Cow Mines on Arbuckle Mountain. The Sunny Hill mines owned by L.F. Barlow. Producing. Archer Mines on the South Fork of Clear Creek. Once the Chicago Mine on which considerable development work and reduction works were erected. Potose Mines in  Muletown District. Once had a mill on it and considerable rich rock was extracted. Was worked 50 years ago. Yankee John Mine near Middletown has been worked intermittently for the past 55 years or more. Mount Shasta Mines on Clear Creek has been explored to a depth of a thousand feet or more. Has been idle 10-12 years. Probably a quarter of a million dollars has been taken from this property. The Oro Fino Mine is adjacent to the Mount Shasta and although an old location has not been extensively explored. Some rich rock has been taken and shipped from this property. -These notes were found at the Behrens-Eaton on 27 April 2011. Old typewriter on Sheriff's Office Letterhead. Unknown if Judge Eaton's work, or a handwritten " J. L. Richardson" is on the 1st page.~


Mining Notes - SW Shasta

1861 March 8, San Francisco Bulletin from Horsetown Argus -

UNION FLAT - located on the north side of Cottonwood Creek, prospects have been obtained that insure to the owners of claims good pay, and in fact, one claim which has been opened for some time, has paid regularly from $8 to $15 a day to the hand.

GAS POINT - opposite to the above place, there are many claims opened that pay wages, and the claim of Mr. link, located at this place is paying at present very largely. There are a number of claims being opened at present. The diggings are in the hills, where there appears to be a lead of gold running through them, and when this lead is found, it yields from an ounce to $30 a day to the hand.

ROARING RIVER & TUTTLE GULCH - we have heard of several claims paying remarkably well. At a place called POVERTY GULCH, in the vicinity of TUTTLETOWN, good pay dirt has been struck.


North Star Mine

North Star consists of 60 acres, in Sec 18 T 31 N R 6 W, four miles northwest of Igo, at an elevation of 1600 feet.

Owner:  J. W. George

One vein is syenite and slate, but slightly developed, short ore shoot, little high grade extracted. Idle. Prospect.

1915, Mines and Mineral Resources, by G. Chester Brown, Field Assistant


Ono Mining District 

(Not to be confused with Empire Mine of French Gulch.)

1915, EMPIRE MINE - Consists of 120 acres, in Sec 9, T 30 N, R 7 W, 3 miles southwest of town of Ono, in the Ono Mining District.

Owners:  McCormick & Murray Estate of Redding.

Two parallel veins exposed on the surface with slate walls. Pay shoot about 80 feet long and 1 foot wide, ore free milling. Only slightly developed by a tunnel 500 feet long. Little ore shipped to smelter. Idle.~

1915, FLORENCE MINE - Consists of 60 acres in Sec 18, T 30 N, R 7 W, about 8 miles southwest of Ono.

Owner: A. E. Baker

One vein 10 feet wide, has been slightly developed, strike N. 30* w, dip 40* E, slate walls. Ore is low grade and base, carrying some copper, lead and zinc, besides gold. Idle.~


Piety Hill, Hardscrabble Mine

1886, July a writer telling of a trip to southwest Shasta County: At Piety Hill the Hard Scrabble mine will shut down pretty soon, on about this time of the year here, is not water sufficient to run the claim.

1915 - Drift and Hydraulic, formerly known as the Piety Hill, is located in Sec 27, 34 and 35, T31 N, R 6 W, 1/2 miles south of Igo, and consists of 1700 acres, patented.

Owners: Happy Valley Land and Water Company of Olinda. A. E. Bowles president. This company owns the old Dry Creek Tunnel and Flume Company's ditch, now known as Happy Valley ditch, which diverts water from the North Fork of Cottonwood, Eagle, Andrews and South Fork of Clear creeks.

Course of channel is north and south, slate, sandstone and granite bedrock. Workings consist of old 1500-foot tunnel and several shafts 50 feet deep.  Some of gravel 50 feet deep, average 20 feet. About 120 acres have been worked. Operated in the sixties by Alvinza Hayward as a drift and hydraulic mine. Has been a famous producer. Idle for several years. Water supplied to consumers through the old ditch.



Potosi Mine

Consists of 60 acres, patented, in Sec 15, T 31 N, R 6 W, 1 1/2 miles northwest of Centerville, in the Igo Mining District. Elevation 1000 feet.

Owner:  E.P. Jones

One vein, slate footwall and granite-porphyry hanging. Pay shoot 100 feet long and 1 foot wide; some high grade extracted. Short tunnel and 90-foot shaft comprise the workings. Idle. 


Princess Mine

Princess Mine - A drift and hydraulic mine consists of 300 acres, patented, in Secs. 25 & 26, T 31N, R 6 W, one mile south of Centerville.

Owner: I. Baer

Course of channel is northeast and southwest, granite bedrock; depth of gravel, 30 feet.

About 40 acres worked. Workings consist of an old tunnel on bedrock 600 feet long, drifts and old shafts 50 feet deep. Water supply was obtained from Boulder Creek through a ditch 12 miles long.

Owner had a permit from the debris commission, granted in 1901, to operate, but the retaining dam was condemned and the property has been idle since that time.

Chapman and Voluntine hydraulic mine to the northeast.

- 1915 Mines and Mineral Resources by G. Chester Brown, Field Assistant


Red Hill Mine

A drift and hydraulic mine, formerly known as Gardner Bros., consists of 60 acres in Sec 1, T. 30 N., R 7 W, 1/2 mile northeast of town of Ono.

Owners: M. Gardner, et. al, of Ono

Course of channel northeast and southwest; soft granite bedrock, gravel 20 feet deep.

Water obtained from Eagle Creek through a ditch 2 miles long. Formerly worked as a Hydraulic mine, but on account of the debris law it is operated by drifting.

In operation during the winter months. Small producer.

- 1915, Mines and Mineral Resources by G. Chester Brown, Field Assistant