Saturday
Apr282012

"Tehama County"

1857 September 14, Daily Globe- The citizens of Tehama county voted on the 2d inst. in the county seat question. Tehama and Red Bluff were the contesting towns. The Tehama folks say they have a majority of nine in their favor, but the Red Bluffs people say that the official returns will show a majority on their side.~

1859, According to the State Register and Year Book of Facts, California, 1859, there were four grist mills listed in Tehama County:

Battle Creek owned by Love & Tollman, two stones and water powered.

Nome Lackee owned by the Indian Department on the Indian Reservation, one stone and water powered.

Red Bluff owned by Bull, Baker & Company, four stones, steam powered and worth $35,000.

Tehama owned by L. Crosby & Bro., 2 stones, water powered and worth $60,000.~

1860 December 12, San Francisco Bulletin  - The Red Bluff Beacon says that a town, in all probability, will shortly spring up in the vicinity of the mouth of Little Antelope [creek], near the residence of John S. Butler, and about four or five miles southeast of Red Bluff. A town plot has been laid out and lots surveyed off, ready for settlers. Messrs. Butler, Dye and Salisbury have purchased a celebrated flour mill in Santa Clara County, and will remove it immediately to the new town aforesaid. They contemplate having it ready for use before next harvest.~

1861 February 1, California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences (San Francisco, CA) - CONVENTION OF FARMERS IN TEHAMA COUNTY - We are glad to see that the Farmers of Tehama county have become "Wide-Awakes" to their own interests, and are determined to assemble and lay the foundation of a good District or County Society. This is the right spirit, and the only way to make the cause of the Farmer succeed. May all such efforts be crowned with an abundant success.~

1874 January 26, San Francisco Bulletin - The late storm did considerable damage to the flume of the Empire Lumber Company, Tehama County, by breaking down the flume and carrying away of the boxes at the crossing of several creeks. Repairs will not be made until the Spring.

The Tehama Independent of the 24th says since the first of December we have hardly had a clear day, and during that time the weather has been unusally cold, deeper snow has fallen, and ice formed thicker than ever before known, causing much suffering among stock and considerable loss.

The dam which raised the water in Mill Creek, Tehama, and supplies the power of the North Star Flouring Mills, was carried out by the recent high water.~

1880 July 13, San Francisco Bulletin- Tehama County has 2,204 school children.~

1880 July 13, San Francisco Bulletin- "The Sierra Flume Company have built a new saw mill in Tehama County."~

1880 July 13 , San Francisco Bulletin - The census report gives Tehama County a population of 9,414, excluding the Chinese, divided as follows:  Paskenta, 2,187; Red Bluff, 4,064; Tehama, 1,856; Cascade and Lassen, 506; Sierra, 474; Cottonwood, 327. This entitles Tehama to a representation of her own. Hitherto it has shared that honor with Colusa County.~

1881 October 7, San Francisco Bulletin - "Cotton-growing on Copeland's ranch, Tehama county, is said to be a success."

"A very severe thunder and lightning storm raged on Cottonwood Creek, Tehama county last week."~

1886 June 10, Daily Commercial News (San Franciso, California) - The Tehama Milling Company has filed articles of incorporation with the County Clerk. The purpose of the company is to buy and sell grain and manufacture flour in Tehama County. The capital stock is $200,000, and the Directors are:  M.C. Ellis, A.T. Ellis, F. L. Parker, John A. Wright and P.J. Van Loben Sels.~

1889 June 12, San Francisco Bulletin - NEW CORPORATIONS - Tehama County Agriculural Association - Place of Business, Red Bluff; no capital stock; Directors - G.G. Kimball, C. Bashurst, Isaac Rambo, W.W. Bates, B.W. Bidwell, E.C. Fortier, J.S. Cone, B.A. Bell, H.B. Shackelford, George W. Vestal, G.C. McCoy, James H. Goodman.~

1909 December 12, San Jose Mercury News, Red Bluff, Cal, Dec 11 - Yesterday the Northern California Power Company paid off 800 men employed by it in the vicinity of Manton and shut down all but the inside and tunnel work on its big power plants. This was done on account of the heavy storm. Many of the discharged men are coming to town.~

1912 March 7, Evening News, Sacramento, March 7 - Thirty two mountain lions, a record number in California for February, were killed. Tehama County heads the list with six. Trinity five, Shasta four, Humboldt four, Mendocino three, Lake and Sonoma two each and one each in Glenn, San Diego, Tulare, Colusa, Madera and Calaveras.  The slayers of these lions received a bounty of $20 for each pelt.~

1915 April 11, San Jose Mercury News, Red Bluff, Cal, April 10 - As the result of a conference held here between the attorneys of the State Fish and Game Commission and Engineer Milford of Redding, representing the Northern California Power Company on the charge of not using proper screen and fish ladders in their intakes to its ditches, will be postponed. It is understood that the Power company is having plans and specifications drawn up which will provide for the installation of proper screening and fish ladders.~

1919 October 6, San Diego Union (San Diego, CA) - TEHAMA DAY AT SHOW - San Francisco, Oct 5 - Monday will be shipbuilding day and Tehama County day at the California Industrial and Land Show which opened here last night. California farm products and manufactures are on exhibition at the show which is held under the auspices of the home Industry League.~

1919 November 20, San Diego Union (San Diego, CA) TEHAMA'S NEW SHERIFF - Red Bluff, Cal, Nov 19 - M. O. Ballard was chosen sheriff of Tehama county by the board of supervisors today to succeed C. Moller who died last week.~

1922 November 5, San Diego Union- Tehama County has turned over $1500. to women's clubs of Corning and Red Bluff for use in planting trees along both sides of the state highway between these cities. The State Board of Forestry and State Highway Commission will assist in the project.~

1958 October 9, Red Bluff Daily News  -The first bridge across the upper Sacramento River was made possible by the Sierra Flume and Lumber Company. It was known as the Centennial Free Bridge having been constructed in 1876 the year of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of the United States.

Kellum Powell was construction superintendent of the structure. He was an experienced lumberman having started the Belle Mill in 1869, and the Clipper Mill in 1872, both of which were purchased by the Sierra Flume and Lumber Company. The lumber company furnished 289,443 feet of timber and planking for the new bridge.

For a cost of $1000. the lumber company secured from the county supervisors a permit to operate a steam train across the bridge to the foot of Oak Street from the mill on the gravel flats just north of the present Highway 99E. Then a permit  was secured  from the city to operate a railroad line to the west side of Madison Street where the lumber trains could connect with the train line.

The company then extended its flume from Inks Creek to the Red Bluff gravel flats. A large plant, at one time the largest Pine Mill in the world, was constructed. This big mill establishment was to operate across from Red Bluff for more than thirty years.

Belle Mill Road just across the river from the main city, and taking off from Highway 99E commemorates the old lumber days.

Wednesday
Sep282011

"Tehama"

1850, Tehama Lodge, No. 3, Sacramento - ". . . Thus it received a new name of Hawaiian origin. Some of the Hawaiian natives in the employ of Capt. John A. Sutter were afterward employed by Bro. Peter Lassen on his ranch on Deer Creek, one of the tributaries of the upper Sacramento River, and it was from their settlement that Tehama County took its name, and probably out of compliment to Bro. Peter Lassen, whose ranch was there located, the Lodge was thus named. Yamhill County, Oregon, was so named from the Hawaiian natives locating there  and planting yams from their native island."

"At the first Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of California, nineteen days afterward, on May 8, 1850, the Lodges were numbered and Tehama Lodge, No. 3, located at Sacramento took its place on the roll of Lodges, where it has ever since remained. . ."~

Every history book that I have read in regards to the name "Tehama" gives credit to it being a word of Native American origin. It hasn't been described as to which Native Americans or language or the exact meaning.

Upon reading the research work of Richard Burrill (2010, Historical and Archaeological Investigations of the Hi Good Cabin Site, CA-TEH-2105H. Susanville, California: The Anthro Company) I provide the following:

"Through time, the story has been passed down that 'Tehama' is a geographical description for 'a crossing place.' Perhaps 'at the bar just below Tehama [town], where the river was shallow,' that one could cross there safely.

Story has it that an Indian maiden called to the non-Indians, 'Te-ha-ma' meaning shallow. She repeated 'te-ha-ma' several more times. Finally they understood and crossed successfully, and the name stuck."

The town named Tehama, located where Mill Creek runs into the Sacramento River, was a settlement as early as 1845 when Robert H. Thomes and Albert G. Toomes constructed an adobe house on Thomes' Rancho de las Saucos grant.  The town was mapped to be a city by Thomes in 1850.

Prior to the white settlers, it was a location used by Indians when they migrated from the hills to the river for their supply of salmon. Which tribal language held the word and if it was used to name that camp or portion of the river is uncertain. As a word to describe a place to cross heard by the people who could perpetuate the concept and later have it appear on paper and hence into the history record is probably why it survived through the years.

The county of Tehama was formed 9 April 1856, by the California Legislature with Tehama the town as the county seat. Tehama county-wide elections moved the "seat" to what is now Red Bluff the following year, 1857, probably because Red Bluffs was then a thriving community at the head of navigation on the Sacramento River and where freighters and stage coaches continued to move the goods and people further north. Territory was taken from Colusi (Colusa), Butte, and Shasta, three of the original California counties, to create Tehama. Also in 1857, legislative action adjusted the Tehama County boundaries on the northwest and southwest.

" In 1857 legislative action adjusted the boundaries of Tehama County by changes both on the northwest and southwest. One change enlarged the county by relocating the northern or Shasta-Tehama line near Cottonwood and Battle Creeks. Then, a southwestern boundary change decreased the size of the county. Over the years some other changes have occurred in the boundary lines, but these acts were attempts to define already existing lines in a more precise manner." - Tehama County 1856-2006, 150 Years of Photos and History, 2007, Tehama County Genealogical and Historical Society.

Donald L. Hislop and Benjamin M. Hughes in their 2007 Red Bluff , California publication: Tehama County Place Names, A Catalogue of Names and Places, some well known, others quaint and curious, some long gone, located within the boundaries of Tehama County, give this accounting:

"Tehama is believed to be an Indian word, but authorities disagree on the meaning, which has variously been reported as high water, low land, salmon, or shallow - any of which would be an accurate description of a location where the river is normally shallow enough to ford, where fisherman are a common sight during the salmon run, and winter floods are a regular occurrence. Some sources claim that a Nomlaki Indian camp was once located on the site of the modern day Tehama on the western bank of the Sacramento River."

So there you have it. We have a word from a Native American or Indian language (Hawaiian or Kanaka) that we aren't sure about the meaning of but did in fact become the name for the oldest successful town located in the territory that was later formed as a county and named the same.Te-ha-ma, the land where a river runs through it.

Notes:  Please see Tehama County Memories, 1997, for an article on page 7 entitled:Solving the "Tehama" Puzzle by Gene Serr.

Gene Serr has also written a follow-up published in the May/June 2014 TCGHS Newsletter, Vol 33, No 5, which can be read on-line at www.tcghsoc.org

 

 

Tuesday
Feb072017

A List of Post Offices

Please enjoy a little information about the Post office names and locations serving the folks of Tehama County. In alphabetical order and with reference to name change. Some locations came within the boundaries of Tehama County with the creation of the county and some discontinued and/or moved to other counties. Some are still in existance. A work in progress, the listing of postmasters is additional and not considered complete.

Battle Creek, Begum, Bend, Bingen, Blossom, Butte Meadows

Cold Fork, Colyear, Comosa, Corning (see: Riceville > Corning)

Dobson

Eby > Redbank > Red Bank, Elder Creek

Farquhar, Flournoy

Gerber, Gleasonville (see: Henleyville > Gleasonville > Henleyville), Grove City

Henleyville (see:  Henleyville > Gleasonville > Henleyville), Hooker, Hunters

Jelly (see: Jelly & Jelly's Ferry)

Kirkwood

Las Flores, Lassen's/Lassen's Ranch/Lassen, Lena, Los Molinos, Lowrey's > Lowrey, Lyonsville

Macum, Manton, Manzanita, Mill Creek, Mineral, Moon's Ranch, Morgan Springs

Paskenta, Payne's Creek, Proberta, Red Bluff, Riceville > Corning, Richfield, Riley, Rosewood

Simmons, Southey

Tehama, Tuscan (Tuscan Springs)

Vina

Whittington

Saturday
Nov202010

Alford's Thirty Mile Crossing

A stage and freight stopping-place at Alford's Thirty Mile Crossing [30 miles out from Red Bluff on what was Beegum Road and now is Highway 36W] was run by Jube and Melvina Alford in their ranch home. When Melvina heard the bells on the teams, and the iron-tired wheels on the wagons rolling over the rocks on the ungraded road, she would build a fire in her wood stove, and prepare a hot meal for the travelers. Granddaughter Ethel (Alford) Peterson tells of how the furniture was cleared from the parlor of the two-story house, and people came for miles around to dance there. Nothing remains of the house, barn, stable and corrals. - Tehama County Memories, 1984:  District I, Our Big Northwest by Anne W. McNabb, pages 41-43. Picture on page 42.~

Friday
Nov232012

Antelope

Antelope Creek, named by John Bidwell in 1843, flows from the higher country, but below Lassen Peak, for 28 miles to the Sacramento River, where it enters the river about 5 miles north-norhtwest of Los Molinos. Antelope Creek flows southwest out of the hill country and then follows a more direct southery route paralell to the Sacramento River before entering the river just north of 5th Avenue, Los Molinos.

Job Francis Dye referred to his 1844 Mexican Land Grant, Rio de los Berrendos, as the Antelope Ranch. The Sacramento River was used as the watercourse boundary of Dye's grant; however, Antelope Creek was an intricate part of the operation.

1858 August 14, Daily Globe (San Francisco, CA) -The "Antelope Rangers" of Tehama County, organized to protect the inhabitants of that region from Indian depredations, are to be reorganized as an independent military association, under the State law.~

1858 August 28, New York Herald (NY,NY) - Died on Antelope Creek, Tehama County, July 13, Albert Crosling, formerly of Missouri.~

1859 January 14, California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences (San Francisco, CA) - Ice at Tehama - A firm, at Antelope Mill, put up one hundred tons of ice during the cold weather.~

1860, Tehama County "needed but two mills to supply its needs (for lumber). These were the Nome Lacke mill, near the head of Thomes Creek, and the Antelope Mill on Job Dye's ranch. Their total production was 1,000,000 feet. The census taker noted that the Antelope Mill handled 2,000 logs to cut 800,000 feet." - W.H. Hutchinson, California Heritage A History of Northern California Lumbering

1877 February 10, Sentinel - DIED - In Antelope Valley, February 3, 1877, Henry Hammans, aged 61 years, 6 months and 5 days. Deceased leaves five sons and four daughters and a large circle of friends to mourn his untimely death.~

1886 January 28, Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, PA) - In Antelope Valley, Tehama County, Cal., there is a cobblestone school house.~

1914 Jan 27, Evening News; Tehama, Jan 27 - Thrown into the swollen waters of Antelope Creek by the capsizing of her buggy, Mrs. George E. Spencer was rescued from the stream in an unconscious condition and the body of her 4-year-old girl was recovered half a mile down the stream.~

1915 April 11, San Jose Mercury News- The Taxpayers League of Tehama County has decided on the following representatives for the election to be held on May 14 for the purpose of choosing 15 freeholders to draw up a new charter. ". . . Chester Willard and A.A. Jeffcoat from Antelope.~

Thursday
Jun142012

Battle Creek

Battle Creek, the stream formed by the confluence of North Fork (Shasta County) and South Fork (Tehama County), flows 16 miles, mainly along Shasta-Tehama county line, to the Sacramento River 7.25 miles N-NE of Bend. North Fork is 29 miles long and heads in Shsta County. South Fork is formed by the confluence of Nanny Creek and Summit Creek in Tehama County, and is 27 miles long.

Battle Creek Meadows is an area along South Fork Battle Creek in Tehama County at Mineral.

1832 - Called Sycamore Creek by Work.

1844 - Appears on diseno of Rancho Breisgau for/by William Benitz as Arroyo de la Campana.

1848- Called Noza Creek by Fremont-Preuss Map.

1849(?) - Named Battle Creek after a "bloody" battle between (A) Trappers and Indians - Steger (B) Fremont's troops, acting on their own in 1846, and Indians - McNamar (C) "It was named for a great battle between the Indians and whites." - Freida Null

1854 - Called Battle Creek by Beckwith.

1865 September 14, Battle Creek Post Office established 3 miles south of Ball's Ferry in Tehama County. Discontinued when the service moved to Ball's Ferry, Shasta County on 25 May 1877. The first postmaster was Samuel F. Frank. Name stems from battle between the Indians and trappers in 1849 according to History of California Post Offices 1849 - 1976.~

1866 November 30, Jerry Cochran, Postmaster.

1867 September 3, John Love, Postmaster.

1868 April 20, Jerry Cochran, Postmaster.

1868 May 19, Elizabeth Love, Postmaster.

1875 January 22, Elizabeth Love, Postmaster.

1876 November 24, John W. McCrum, Postmaster.

1877 May 25, Battle Creek, Tehama County, California Post Office discontinued. Service moved to Ball's Ferry, Shasta County, California Post Office.

1881 April 12, San Francisco Bulletin, via People's Cause, Tehama County -

Old man Weimer, the hunter and goat-herder, who has charge of a band of goats in the forks of Battle Creek, Tehama County, killed a large California lion a few days since.

Weimer was out with his goats when he heard a noise in the brush and turning around he saw the glare of the lion's eyes. He sprang to his feet, grabbed his double-barreled shotgun, walked to within 20 feet of the animal and fired both barrels, the charge taking affect in the region of the heart, killing the animal instantly.

The lion had sprung from her lair on the back of a goat and closed her teeth on the back of its neck so firmly that in her death throes the jaws were locked like a vice. The animal measures nearly six feet from the tip of the nose to the end of the tail.~

Monday
Sep142015

Beegum

See also:  Beegum under Shasta County

The "community" of Beegum is located in the extreme northwestern corner of Tehama County AND/OR the extreme southwestern portion of Shasta County. There is a Beegum Mountain, Beegum Creek, Beegum Basin and Beegum Gorge in the vicinity.

1895 December 6, 4th Class Post Office established as Beegum, Shasta County, California.

Sarah Wolcott, First Postmaster.

1900 January 18, Post Office moved 1/4 mile into Tehama County.

1917 December 31, Post Office discontinued and the service moved to Knob, Shasta County, California.

 

Wednesday
Nov112015

Belle Mills

1874 July 4, Red Bluff Independent - DIED - At Belle Mills, Tehama county, June 27th, 1874, Barr DeShields, aged 32 years, 6 months, 3 days.~

Friday
Nov232012

Bend

AKA:  Horsethief Bend, Sanders Bend

1859, Nathanial Hazelton arrived and used a rowboat to ferry settlers across the river.

1892, Herbert Kraft had a ferry constructed for the Bend site and paid Jack Davis to operate it.

1897 January 13, A 4th class post office was established at the site of a big bend in the Sacramento River. Located 8 miles north of Red Bluff.

Curtis U. Damon was the first postmaster. 

1904 January 5, Maria L. Damon, Postmaster.

1904 September 17, George T. Tierney, Postmaster.

1906 March 2, John J. Pope, Postmaster.

1913 October 21, Georgia Pope, Postmaster.

1932, Bend Bridge built.

1935 May 15, Post Office discontinued and the service moved to Red Bluff.

1958 September 7, San Diego Union- The Wildlife Conservation Board is spending $48,131. for boat launching ramps along the Sacramento River - at Anderson and Balls Ferry in Shasta County, and at Bend Bridge, Tehama County.~

Friday
Nov232012

Bingen

1886 March 4,  A 4th Class Post Office was established as Bingen, Tehama, California located 9 miles southwest of Cottonwood at about the junction of Bowman and Farquhar roads.

Henry Heckert was the first postmaster.

1887 April 19, The postal service discontinued and service moved to Cottonwood.

Monday
Sep142015

Blossom

1867 April 3, Marysville Daily Appeal, BORN - At Blossom's Ranch on Antelope Creek, March 24, to the wife of J. A. Blossom, a son.

1896 February 3, 4th class Post Office established as Blossom, Tehama, California,  located 6 miles south of Manzanita on the north fork of Reed's Creek and about 12 miles west of Red Bluff. Named for Robert Hurd Blossom who founded his 10,000 plus acre ranch in 1882. The P O was part of the ranch headquarters.

Robert H. Blossom, First Postmaster.

1903 July 11, Edward J. Blossom, Postmaster.

1907 August 15, Post Office discontinued and the service moved to Red Bluff.

Wednesday
Sep162015

Butte Meadows

See also:  Butte Meadows, Butte County, California

1878 January 7, Butte Meadows, Tehama County Post Office established 37 miles northeast of Chico, Buttte County, California. 

1878 January 7, Henry P. McLoughlin, Postmaster.

1878 June 7, Post Office moved 1 mile east into Butte County.

1879 February 27, David O. Thomas Postmaster.

1879 May 22, Watson C. Roberts, Postmaster.

1880 August 3, John E. Carter, Postmaster.

1880 August 4, P O moved 1 mile west into Tehama County.

1888 March 5, P O moved 1 mile east into Butte County.

1967 April 30, P O changed to to Contract Rural Branch of Chico.

Thursday
May152014

Capay

A farming community in southern Tehama County and northern Glenn County. No Post Office.

1938 June 15, Seattle Daily Times (Seattle WA) - Young Slayer Condemned - Red Bluff, Calif., Wednesday, June 15 - Judge H. S. Gans imposed the death penalty yesterday on Claud Davir,[Davis?] 23 years old, convicted of the murder of Earle Cofer near Capay, Tehama County, last March 17.~

Wednesday
Sep162015

Cold Fork

1915 January 12, 4th Class Cold Fork, Tehama, California Post Office established on the Cold Fork of Cottonwood Creek. Located 15 miles southwest of Hunters per the 1917 Postal Route map.

1915 January 12, James L. Linton, First Postmaster.

1915 December 15, Anna Laura Brownlee, Postmaster.

1920 July 15, P O discontinued and the service moved to Hunters.

 

Thursday
Nov122015

Colyear

AKA Colyer

1889 July 22, 4th Class Post Office established as Colyear, Tehama County, California,  located 10 miles southwest of Red Bluff. Honors John. G. Colyear, an 1862 Homesteader.

George Baker, First Postmaster.

1894 April 23, P O Discontinued and moved 5 miles west and name changed to Eby.

1905 October 23, P O re-established as Colyear with Richard Owen as the postmaster.

1910 August 31, P O discontinued and the service moved to Lowrey.

Thursday
Nov122015

Comosa

1880 August 4, 4th Class Post Office established as Comosa, Tehama County, California located 6 miles southwest of Tehama on the Tehama-Paskenta Road just north of Thomes Creek per the 1884 Postal Route Map.

1882 September 5, Discontinued.

1884 May 29, P O re-established.

1885 October 20, P O Discontinued and the service moved to Tehama.

Monday
Jan162017

Corning

See:  Riceville > Corning

Thursday
Nov122015

Dobson

1896 February 3, 4th Class Post Office established as Dobson, Tehama County, California located 6 1/2 miles southwest of Hunters. Named for Malinda Dobson the first and only postmaster.

1897 May 31, P O discontinued and the service moved to Blossom.

Thursday
Nov122015

Eby > Redbank > Red Bank

1894 April 23, 4th Class Post Office established located 14 miles southwest of Red Bluff named Eby, Tehama County, California. The P O was moved from Colyear and was named for Jackson Eby, landowner.

Charles S. Beall, first postmaster.

1904 June 23, Post Office discontnued when the name was changed to Redbank.

1904 June 23, 4th class post office established 16 miles SW of Red Bluff as Redbank, Tehama, California. Charles S. Beall was the first postmaster. Also known as Eby, the location name stemmed from the Barranca Colorado (Red Ravine) Rancho land grant. The post office was discontinued 31 May 1918 when the service moved to Red Bluff.~

1913 July 1, Charles S. Beall, Postmaster.

1914 February 17, Julia Carlson, Postmaster.

1915 April 11, San Jose Mercury News- The Taxpayers League of Tehama County has decided on the following representatives for the election to be held on May 14 for the purpose of choosing 15 free-holders to draw up a new charter.   . . .Mandus Johnson, B.A. Bell, Red Bank.~

Thursday
Nov122015

Elder Creek

1878 January 4, 4th Class Post Office established as Elder Creek, Tehama County, California, located 12 miles southwest of Red Bluff. The growth of Elder trees along the stream generated the name and when Elder Creek is mentioned, it brings to mind the Robert H. Thomes Mexican Land Grant:  Arroyo de los Saucos, arroyo of the elder trees.

Robert H. Florence, First Postmaster

1882 October 23, Post Office discontinued and the service moved to Red Bluff.